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Friday the 13th is an American horror franchise that consists of eleven slasher films, a television show, novels, and comic books. The franchise is mainly based on the fictional character of Jason Voorhees, who supposedly drowned at Camp Crystal Lake as a boy due to the negligence of the teenage counselors. Decades later, the lake is rumored to be "cursed", and is the setting for a series of mass murders. Jason is featured in all of the films, either as the killer or as the motivation for the killings. The original film was written by Victor Miller, and it was produced and directed by Sean S. Cunningham, with various other individuals taking over those jobs for each sequel.

Originally created to cash in on the success of John Carpenter's Halloween (1978), the success lead Paramount Pictures to purchase the full rights to the Friday the 13th franchise with Frank Mancuso, Jr. to produce it. Mancuso, Jr. would go on to develop the television show Friday the 13th: The Series after Paramount released what would be their last film. The television series is not connected to the rest of the franchise by any character or setting, but was created out of the idea of "bad luck and curses", which the film series symbolized. While the franchise was owned by Paramount, four films were adapted into novels, with the film Friday the 13th Part 3 receiving two separate adaptations. When the franchise was sold to New Line Cinema, Cunningham returned to oversee two additional films, and a crossover film with Freddy Krueger from another horror film series A Nightmare on Elm Street. Under New Line, eight novellas and various comic book series were published featuring Jason Voorhees.

The film series was never favored by critics, but still became a financial success at the box office. When comparing the United States box office grosses of other horror film series, Friday the 13th is the highest grossing franchise in adjusted US dollars.

Overview

In the original Friday the 13th (1980), Mrs. Voorhees (Betsy Palmer) stalks and murders a group of camp counselors. She is determined to make sure Camp Crystal Lake does not reopen, after her son Jason (Ari Lehman) drowned in the lake while two counselors, who were supposed to be watching him, were off having sex and not paying attention. The last girl, Alice (Adrienne King), fends off Mrs. Voorhees long enough to grab a machete to decapitate her. For Friday the 13th Part 2 (1981), Jason's death as a boy is retconned, and he gets his revenge on the girl who decapitated his mother. Afterward, Jason (Steve Daskewisz) returns to Crystal Lake, guarding it from all intruders. Five years later, a group of teenagers come to Crystal Lake to set up a new camp, only to get murdered one by one by Jason. Ginny Field (Amy Steel), the lone survivor, finds a cabin in the woods with a shrine built around the severed head of Mrs. Voorhees, and surrounded by mutilated corpses. Ginny fights back, and slams a machete through Jason's shoulder. Jason is left for dead as Ginny is taken away in an ambulance. In Friday the 13th Part III (1982), Jason (Richard Brooker) escapes to a nearby lake resort, Higgins Haven, to rest from his wounds. At the same time, Chris Higgins (Dana Kimmell) returns to the property with some friends. An unmasked and reclusive Jason kills anyone who wanders into the barn where he is hiding. Taking a hockey mask from a victim to hide his face, he leaves the barn to kill the rest of the group. Chris seemingly kills Jason with an axe to his head, but the night's events drive her into hysteria as the police take her away.

Friday the 13th: The Final Chapter (1984) continues where Part 3 leaves off, with Jason (Ted White) found by the police and taken to the morgue. Once delivered to the Wessex County morgue, Jason, not dead, awakens and kills an attendant and nurse, and then makes his way back to Crystal Lake. A group of friends rent a house on Crystal Lake and become part of Jason's rampage. After killing all of the teens next door, Jason seeks out Trish (Kimberly Beck) and Tommy Jarvis (Corey Feldman). While distracted by Trish, Jason is attacked and killed by Tommy.[9] Friday the 13th: A New Beginning (1985) tried to move in a new direction. Tommy Jarvis (John Shepherd) was committed to a mental hospital after the events of The Final Chapter, and has grown up constantly afraid that Jason (Tom Morga) will return. Jason's body was supposedly cremated after Tommy killed him. Roy Burns (Dick Wieand) uses Jason's persona to become a copycat killer at the halfway home to which Tommy was moved. Tommy, supervisor Pam (Melanie Kinnaman), and a young boy named Reggie (Shavar Ross) manage to defeat Roy. They learn Roy was motivated to become Jason after witnessing the remains of his butchered son, a son no one was aware he had, at the hands of one of the patients at the institution.[10] Friday the 13th Part VI: Jason Lives (1986) had Tommy (Thom Mathews) visiting Jason's grave after being released from a mental institution. It is revealed that Jason's body was never actually cremated, but buried in Forest Green cemetery (formerly Crystal Lake cemetery). Tommy inadvertently resurrects Jason (C.J. Graham) via a piece of cemetery fence, which acts as a lightning rod. Jason returns to Forest Green, still believing it is Crystal Lake. After killing the new camp counselors working there, Jason is chained to a boulder, by Tommy, to the bottom of the lake. Jason is left to die.

Friday the 13th Part VII: The New Blood (1988) begins an undisclosed amount of time after Jason Lives. Jason (Kane Hodder) is resurrected again, this time by the telekinetic Tina Shepard (Lar Park Lincoln), who was trying to resurrect her father. Jason begins killing those who occupy Crystal Lake, and after a battle with Tina, Jason is returned to the bottom of the lake.[12] Friday the 13th Part VIII: Jason Takes Manhattan (1989) sees Jason return from the lake, brought back to life via an underwater electrical cable. He follows a group of students on their senior class trip to Manhattan, boarding the Lazarus to wreak havoc. Upon reaching Manhattan, Jason kills the rest of the survivors, with the exception of Rennie (Jensen Daggett) and Sean (Scott Reeves); he chases the final two into the sewers, where Jason is caught and melted away by toxic waste. In Jason Goes to Hell: The Final Friday (1993), Jason, through unexplained resurrection, returns to Crystal Lake, where he is being hunted by the F.B.I.. The F.B.I. sets up a sting to kill Jason, which proves successful. Through possession, Jason manages to survive by passing his black heart from one being to the next. Though Jason is hardly seen throughout the film, it is learned that he has a sister and niece, and that he needs them to get his body back. After resurrecting his own body, Jason is finally killed by his niece, Jessica Kimble (Kari Keegan), and dragged to Hell.

Jason X (2002) takes place in the future, where Jason has again been resurrected, though it is not explained how. He is being held and experimented upon in a research facility. It is determined that he has regenerative capabilities, and that cryonic suspension is the only possible solution to stop him since he cannot be killed. Jason breaks out of captivity and manages to slice through the cryo-chamber, spilling the cryonics into the room freezing the only other survivor, Rowan (Lexa Doig). Four hundred and fifty-five years later, Jason's body is discovered by a team of students studying Earth. Upon being thawed by the team, he proceeds to murder everyone aboard the spacecraft, before finally being blown into space, and landing on Earth 2. The most recent Friday the 13th film was a crossover with A Nightmare on Elm Street, entitled Freddy vs. Jason (2003). Set in the contemporary period, Freddy Krueger (Robert Englund) has grown weak, as people in Springwood, his home, have suppressed their fear of him. Freddy, who is impersonating Pamela Voorhees (Paula Shaw), sends Jason (Ken Kirzinger) to Springwood to cause panic and fear. Jason accomplishes this, but refuses to stop killing. A battle ensues in both the dream-world and Crystal Lake. The winner is left ambiguous, as Jason surfaces from the lake holding Freddy's severed head, which winks and laughs.

Development

The original Friday the 13th film was produced and directed by Sean S. Cunningham, who had previously worked with filmmaker Wes Craven on the film The Last House on the Left (1972). Cunningham, inspired by John Carpenter's Halloween (1978), and films by Mario Bava, wanted Friday the 13th to be shocking, visually stunning, and "[make] you jump out of your seat". Wanting to distance himself from The Last House on the Left, Cunningham wanted Friday the 13th to be more of a "roller-coaster ride".

Friday the 13th did not even have a completed script when Sean S. Cunningham took out this ad in Variety magazine
Friday the 13th did not even have a completed script when Sean S. Cunningham took out this ad in Variety magazine

The first film was meant to be "a real scary movie" and at the same time make the audience laugh. Friday the 13th began its life as nothing more than a title. Initially, "Long Night at Camp Blood" was the working title during the writing process, but Cunningham believed in his "Friday the 13th" moniker, and quickly rushed out to place an ad in Variety. Worried that someone else owned the rights to the title and wanting to avoid potential lawsuits, Cunningham thought it would be best to find out immediately. Cunningham commissioned a New York advertising agency to develop his concept of the Friday the 13th logo, which consisted of big block letters bursting through a pane of glass. In the end, Cunningham believed there were "no problems" with the title, but distributor George Mansour stated, "There was a movie before ours called Friday the 13th: The Orphan. Moderately successful. But someone still threatened to sue. I don't know whether Phil [Scuderi] paid them off, but it was finally resolved."

Following the success of Friday the 13th in 1980, Paramount Pictures began plans to make a sequel. First acquiring the worldwide distribution rights, Frank Mancuso, Sr. stated, "We wanted it to be an event, where teenagers would flock to the theaters on that Friday night to see the latest episode." The initial ideas for a sequel involved the Friday the 13th title being used for a series of films, released once a year, that would not have direct continuity with each other, but be a separate "scary movie" of their own right. Phil Scuderi—one of three owners of Esquire Theaters, which included Steve Minasian and Bob Barsamian, who produced the original film—insisted that the sequel have Jason Voorhees, Pamela's son, even though his appearance in the original film was only meant to be a joke. Steve Miner, associate producer on the first film, believed in the idea, and would go on to direct the first two sequels, after Cunningham opted not to return to the director's chair. Miner would use many of the same crew members from the first film while working on the sequels.

The studio would continue to produce more sequels over the years, based on the financial success they produced on low budgets. With every film repeating the same premise, the filmmakers had to come up with little tweaks to provide freshness so the audience would return. Changes could involve an addition to the title—as opposed to just a number attached to the end—like "The Final Chapter" and "Jason Takes Manhattan", or filming the movie in 3-D, as Miner did for Friday the 13th Part 3. The third film would also be the birthplace of one of the most recognizable images in popular culture, that of Jason's hockey mask. Frank Mancuso, Jr., who was constantly associated with the Friday the 13th film series in the filmmaking community, was prevented from being able to "read anything that wasn't in that ilk". Mancuso, Jr. felt that the next logical step was to kill Jason for good.

Jason would not stay buried for long, as the success of The Final Chapter would ensure another Friday the 13th film. Paramount Picture's Chairman and CEO Frank Mancuso, Sr. stated, "Quite simply, the public still wanted to see these films. So until they really stopped coming, why not continue to make more?" A New Beginning attempted to shift the focus of the story to the character of Tommy Jarvis, and how he battles his inner demons, hallucinations, and "rages to kill" after his ordeal with Jason. This premise was not repeated, as the very next installment brought Jason back from the dead, appropriately subtitled Jason Lives. The film attempted to create a "funnier, faster and more action-packed […] Friday" than had previously been done. The limited success of Jason Lives provided enough incentive to create another sequel, The New Blood, which screenwriter Daryl Haney believes Paramount was hoping the movie would provide for them. The idea proposed by screenwriter Daryl Haney stemmed from his recognition that the films always ended with Jason battling the final girl; Haney proposed this time the final girl should have telekinetic powers. Producer Barbara Sachs would dub the film, Jason vs. Carrie.

"Okay, we'll make Vancouver look like New York and we'll do it that way. But they came back again with, 'You can't do the Brooklyn Bridge in Vancouver. You can't do Madison Square Garden in Vancouver. You can't do the Statue of Liberty in Vancouver.' Pretty soon it was half New York, half on the boat. Then it was the last third in New York. It just kept getting whittled down and down."
— Rob Hedden (writer/director) on the deconstruction of Jason Takes Manhattan's story

Plans were made to take Jason away from Crystal Lake, and place him in a "broader" environment for the eighth film. New York City was quickly decided to by the location Jason would travel to, with intentions that he would spend "the first third of the movie […] on the boat", he would then spend the rest of his time in New York; the film was consequently subtitled Jason Takes Manhattan. Ultimately this did not occur, as the character spent the majority of the time on the cruise ship. Budget restrictions forced scenes of New York to be trimmed, or downgraded, in order to keep the budget low. Vancouver become the New York substitute, but there were complications.

When Jason Takes Manhattan failed to perform successfully at the box office, Sean Cunningham decided that he wanted to reacquire the rights to Friday the 13th and head to New Line Cinema in an effort to start work on Freddy vs. Jason. The concept of a crossover between Freddy and Jason was not new since Paramount had approached New Line, years before they had gained the rights to Friday the 13th, about doing a crossover film. Unfortunately, both companies wanted the license to the other's character so that they could control the making of the film. Negotiations on the project were never finalized, which led Paramount to make The New Blood. After Jason Takes Manhattan was released in 1989 the rights reverted back to Scuderi, Minasian and Barsamianto, who sold them to New Line. Before Cunningham could start working on Freddy vs. Jason, Wes Craven returned to make a new Nightmare on Elm Street, titled New Nightmare. This effectively put Freddy vs. Jason on hold, but allowed Cunningham the chance to bring Jason back into the spotlight, with Jason Goes to Hell. The ninth installment "turned a healthy profit", even though it was never meant to start a new series of Friday the 13th films for New Line but open the door for a cross-over with Freddy Krueger. Ultimately, the film series would go through another sequel before that would happen. Sean Cunningham's "frustation" with the Freddy vs. Jason project, which was stuck in development hell, caused him to create another sequel in an effort to keep the franchise in the minds of audiences. Based on Jason Takes Manhattan's idea of taking Jason away from Crystal Lake, the tenth film would take put the titular character in space. The film would suffer from the loss its biggest supporter, Michael De Luca, President of Production, when he resigned from his position. Lack of support forced the finished film to sit for two years before finally being released on April 26, 2002; the film would go on to become the lowest grossing film in the franchise, with the largest budget of any of the films before it as well.

After more than ten years of off-and-on development, and approximately $6 million spent in eighteen unused scripts from more than a dozen screenwriters, Freddy and Jason were finally set to meet in 2003. One of the biggest hurdles for the film was developing a story that managed to bring the two horror icons together. Stories varied widely from Freddy having molested and drowned Jason a child, resulting in Jason's anger toward Freddy, to a cult of Freddy worshippers called the "Fred Heads", before settling on a story the studio liked.

Crew
Film Director Writer(s) Producer(s)
1. Friday the 13th Sean Cunningham Victor Miller Sean Cunningham
2. Friday: Part 2 Steve Miner Ron Kurz Steve Miner & Dennis Murphy
3. Friday: Part 3 Martin Kitrosser & Carol Watson Frank Mancuso Jr.
4. The Final Chapter Joseph Zito Barney Cohen Tony Bishop & Frank Mancuso Jr.
5. A New Beginning Danny Steinmann Martin Kitrosser, David Cohen & Danny Steinmann Timothy Silver
6. Jason Lives Tom McLoughlin Don Behrns
7. The New Blood John Carl Buechler Manuel Fidello & Daryl Haney Iain Paterson
8. Jason Takes Manhattan Rob Hedden Randy Cheveldave
9. Jason Goes to Hell Adam Marcus Jay Huguely, Adam Marcus & Dean Lorey Sean Cunningham
10. Jason X James Isaac Todd Farmer Noel Cunningham
11. Freddy vs. Jason Ronny Yu Damian Shannon & Mark Swift Sean Cunningham

Music

When Harry Manfredini began working on the musical score, the decision was made to only play the music alongside the killer so it would not "manipulate the audience" into thinking the killer was present when they were not. Manfredini pointed out the lack of music for certain scenes: "There's a scene where one of the girls […] is setting up the archery area of the film. One of the guys shoots an arrow into the target and just misses her. It's a huge scare, but if you notice, there's no music. That was a choice." Manfredini also noted that when something was going to happen, the music would cut off so that the audience would relax a bit, and the scare would be that much more effective.

Since Mrs. Voorhees, the killer in the original Friday the 13th, does not show up until the final reel of the film, Manfredini had the job of creating a score that would represent the killer in her absence. Manfredini was inspired by the 1975 film Jaws, where the shark is not seen for the majority of the film but the motif created by John Williams cued the audience on when the shark was present during scenes when you could not see it. Sean S. Cunningham sought a chorus, but the budget would not allow it. While listening to a Krzysztof Penderecki piece of music, which contained a chorus with "striking pronunciations", Manfredini was inspired to recreate a similar sound. He came up with the sound "ki ki ki, ma ma ma" from the final reel when Mrs. Voorhees arrives and is reciting "Kill her mommy!" The "ki" comes from "kill", and the "ma" from "mommy". To achieve the unique sound he wanted for the film, Manfredini spoke the two words "harshly, distinctly and rhythmically into a microphone" and ran them into an echo reverberation machine. Manfredini finished the original score after a couple of weeks, and then recorded the score in a friend's basement. Victor Miller and assistant editor Jay Keuper have commented on how memorable the music is, with Keuper describing it as "iconographic". Manfredini says, "Everybody thinks it's cha, cha, cha. I'm like, 'Cha, cha, cha? What are you talking about?"

When Manfredini returned for the first sequel, he had an easier time composing, only needing to perfect what he had already created on the first film. Over the course of the sequels, Manfredini loosened the philosophy that the theme should be reserved just for the killer. The style of the sequels was viewed more as a "setting 'em up and knocking 'em down", which meant that there were more "McGuffins and red-herrings" that required the killer's theme music be played in their presence. Manfredini explains, "The original had the real myopic approach, and then we had to start thinking of the sequels as more conventional films." For Part 3, Manfredini only returned to score the first and last reels of the film, as he was busy with a Broadway production. Jack Tillar came in to piece together bits from the first two films to fill the remaining time for Part 3, while Michael Zagar was brought in to compose an opening and closing theme. Manfredini and Zagar met at the latter's apartment, where Zagar rescored the original opening theme, using a disco beat. In 1982, Gramavision Records released a LP album of selected pieces of music from the first three films. Harry Manfredini returned for The Final Chapter, and although there were similar elements to the score, everything was freshly recorded for the fourth Friday the 13th.

When he began work on the score for A New Beginning, Manfredini created a theme just for the character of Tommy Jarvis. The idea was to suggest that there was "madness afoot", as it was also important to "'point the finger' at various characters [...] to suggest that things were not as you might expect". For Jason Lives, Tom McLoughlin instructed Manfredini to create a score that would not alert the audience to what was happening, or about to happen, "but instead allow the audience to do it to themselves". McLoughlin took this idea from John Carpenter's 1978 film Halloween, which would always accompany any shock in the film with Carpenter's "Eeeeeeee!" sound. McLoughlin wanted something more subtle, and with a "Gothic" sound.

Manfredini did not return to score The New Blood and Jason Takes Manhattan because of prior film engagements, but his scores from previous films were reused. While Manfredini was working on Sean Cunningham's DeepStar Six, producer Iain Paterson hired Fred Mollin, who had been working on scoring Friday the 13th: The Series for the previous year, to finish scoring The New Blood, as Manfredini's original music only filled half the film. According to director John Carl Buechler, the combined effort of Mollin's score and Manfredini's original music clashed with each other. Mollin returned to fully score Jason Takes Manhattan, as well as work with Steve Mizer to write an original song, reminiscent of Robert Plant, for the opening credits. Manfredini would score the next two entries in the series, before being replaced on Freddy vs. Jason. The official reason for Manfredini's replacement was because New Line wanted to take the series in a "new direction", although Manfredini contends that the final cut of Freddy vs. Jason was "just the same thing".

 Box office

The Friday the 13th films were never popular with the critics, in contrast to other slasher films like Halloween. They disliked how the series favored high body counts over plot and character development and how each film was almost indistinguishable from the last. Nevertheless, the films were a financial success, prompting Paramount to release more sequels, contingent on the box office appeal. When comparing Friday the 13th with the other top-grossing American horror franchises—the Hannibal Lecter series, A Nightmare on Elm Street, Halloween, Psycho, Scream, The Texas Chainsaw Massacre, and Child's Play—and adjusting for the 2005 inflation, Friday the 13th is the highest grossing horror franchise at approximately $523 million. The Hannibal Lecter film series follows closely with $518 million, then Halloween with $444 million, A Nightmare on Elm Street with $442 million, Psycho with $388 million, Scream with $381 million, The Texas Chainsaw Massacre with $248 million, and the Child's Play film series rounding out the list with approximately $174 million. The financial success has extended to home release, with more than five million DVDs sold by 2005.

Film Release date (US) Budget[5] Box office revenue Reference
United States Foreign Worldwide
1. Friday the 13th May 9, 1980 $550,000 $39,754,601 $39,754,601 [44]
2. Friday the 13th Part 2 April 30, 1981 $1,250,000 $21,722,776 $21,722,776 [45]
3. Friday the 13th Part 3 August 13, 1982
May 13, 1983 (y)[5]
$2,500,000 $36,690,067 $36,690,067 [46]
4. The Final Chapter April 13, 1984 $2,600,000 $32,980,880 $32,980,880 [47]
5. A New Beginning March 22, 1985 $2,200,000 $21,930,418 $21,930,418 [48]
6. Jason Lives August 1, 1986 $3,000,000 $19,472,057 $19,472,057 [49]
7. The New Blood May 13, 1988 $2,800,000 $19,170,001 $19,170,001 [50]
8. Jason Takes Manhattan July 28, 1989 $5,000,000 $14,343,976 $14,343,976 [51]
9. Jason Goes to Hell August 13, 1993 $3,000,000 $15,935,068 $15,935,068 [52]
10. Jason X April 26, 2002 $14,000,000 $13,121,555 $3,830,243 $16,951,798 [53]
11. Freddy vs. Jason August 15, 2003 $25,000,000 $82,622,655 $32,286,175 $114,908,830 [54]
Friday the 13th film series $61,650,000 $317,744,054 $36,116,418 $353,860,472

*Note: Updated October 14, 2007. Please update if necessary.

 Remake

In January 2007, producers Andrew Form and Brad Fuller outlined their intended goal to bring the remake to life. Fuller and Form were approached by New Line to create a remake, but because Paramount still owned certain copyrights to the first film the remake would not be able to use anything from the original film. Paramount, who wanted to be included in the remake, approached the producers and gave them license to use anything from the original films, including the title. With Paramount on board, Fuller and Form decided they wanted to use pieces from each of the first three films. Fuller stated, "I think there are moments we want to address, like how does the hockey mask happen. It’ll happen differently in our movie than in the third one. Where is Jason from, why do these killings happen, and what is Crystal Lake?" The producers expressed an interest in using the character of Tommy Jarvis, and stated that they were currently trying to figure out an origin story for Jason that would make sense.

Damian Shannon and Mark Swift, writers of Freddy vs. Jason, were announced in October 2007 to have been hired to pen a script for the remake. The film was reported to focus on Jason Voorhees, and that he will keep his trademark hockey-mask. The film is being produced by Michael Bay, Andrew Form, and Brad Fuller through Bay's production company Platinum Dunes, for New Line Cinema. Director Jonathan Liebesman was originally in negotiations to direct the remake in February 2006, but in November 2007, Marcus Nispel, director of The Texas Chainsaw Massacre remake of 2003, replaced Liebesman in negotiations to direct.

Television

On September 28, 1987, Paramount, after the release of what would be their final Friday the 13th film, began airing Friday the 13th: The Series, a television series that focuses on two cousins' attempts to recover cursed antiques that were sold from a shop they inherited from their uncle. The show starred John D. LeMay as Ryan Dallion and Louise Robey as Michelle Foster. It was created by Frank Mancuso, Jr. and Larry B. Williams originally under the title of The 13th Hour; the series ran for 77 episodes. Mancuso, Jr. never intended to link the television show directly to the film series, but "take the idea of Friday the 13th, which is that it symbolizes bad luck and curses". A plan for the show called for a tie-in to Jason's trademark hockey mask, but the idea was eventually discarded so that the show could have a chance to exist on its own. Mancuso, Jr. was afraid that mentioning any events from the films would take the audience away from "the new world that we were trying to create". The decision to name the show Friday the 13th, over the original title, was made because Mancuso, Jr. believed a Friday the 13th moniker would better help to sell the show to networks. Filming took place in Toronto, Canada.

Friday the 13th: The Series began airing as a first-run syndication late at night on Fox, but the first season performed so well that Paramount shopped for better time-slots. Produced on a budgeted estimated below $500,000 an episode, in its first season Friday the 13th placed second in the male 18 to 49 year old demographic, with Paramount's Star Trek: The Next Generation taking first place. The first season also placed fifth in the female 18 to 49 year old demographic.

In September 2003, during an panel session at the Maniafest convention, Sean S. Cunningham spoke about possibly bringing Friday the 13th back to the television screen, but this time base the show around Camp Crystal Lake and a set of teenagers living in the area. On October 22, 2005, Cunningham spoke to Slasherama of the potential Friday the 13th television series. Cunningham stated that the show would be called Crystal Lake Chronicles and be "set in a town with all this Jason history". Jason would be an recurring character, "part of the background", but the series would focus more on "coming-of-age issues", in a similar style to Buffy the Vampire Slayer, Dawson's Creek, and Smallville.

Novels
"I couldn't believe it. He started writing this book with low expectations, but a few pages in, he was already enjoying himself. He'd found a way to tell the story in his own interesting way - with his own imprint - and he wrote the book in less than a week. Dad never wrote a book that he didn't like."
— David Avallone on his father's experience

writing Friday the 13th Part 3

Six of the eleven films have been novelizedFriday the 13th 1 - 3, Jason Lives, Jason X and Freddy vs. Jason—with Friday the 13th Part 3 having been adapted twice, by two different authors. The first novel was the 1982 adaptation of Friday the 13th Part 3 by Michael Avallone, who had previously adapted Beneath the Planet of the Apes and Shock Treatment. Avallone chose to use an alternate ending, one that was filmed for Part 3 but never used, as the conclusion for his 1982 adaptation. In the alternate ending, Chris, who is in the canoe, hears Rick's voice and immediately rushes back to the house. When she opens the door, Jason is standing there with a machete, and he proceeds to decapitate her.

The next book was not until 1986, with the novelization of Jason Lives by Simon Hawke, who went on to adapt the first three films into novels. Hawke novelized the original film in 1987, and Part 2 & 3 in 1988. Jason Lives specifically introduced Elias Voorhees, Jason's father, who was slated to appear in the film but was cut by the studio. In the story, instead of being cremated, Elias has Jason buried after his death. In 1994, four young adult novels were released under the title of Friday the 13th. These stories focused on different people finding Jason's mask and becoming possessed by his spirit, but the actual character did not appear in the novels.

In 2003 and 2005, Black Flame published novelizations of Freddy vs. Jason and Jason X respectively. After the novelization of Jason X, they began publishing a new series of novels; one set was published under the Jason X title, while the second set utilized the Friday the 13th title. The Jason X series consisted of four sequels to the adaptation of the film. Jason X: The Experiment was the first published. In this novel, Jason is being used by the government, who are trying to use his indestructibility to create their own army of "super soldiers". Planet of the Beast follows the efforts of Dr. Bardox and his crew as they try to clone the body of a comatose Jason, and their efforts to stay alive when Jason wakes from his coma. Death Moon revolves around Jason crash-landing at Moon Camp Americana. Jason's body is discovered below a prison site, and unknowingly resurrected in To The Third Power.

The Friday the 13th novel storyline was not connected to the Jason X series, and did not continue the stories set forth by the films, but furthered the character of Jason in its own way. Friday the 13th: Church of the Divine Psychopath has Jason resurrected by a religious cult. Jason is stuck in Hell, when recently executed serial killer Wayne Sanchez persuades Jason to help him return to the real world in Friday the 13th: Hell Lake. In Hate-Kill-Repeat, two religious serial killers attempt to find Jason at Crystal Lake, believing that the three of them share the same contempt for those that break the moral code. The Jason Strain puts Jason on an island with a group of convicts, placed there by television executives running a reality game show. The character of Pamela Voorhees returns from the grave in Carnival of Maniacs. Pamela is in search of Jason, who is now part of a traveling sideshow and about to be auctioned off to the highest bidder.

Comic books

Since New Line Cinema's acquisition of the franchise, several Friday the 13th comic books have been published by Topps Comics, Avatar Press and DC Comics imprint WildStorm. The first comic book release for the franchise was 1993, by Topps Comics, with the adaptation of Jason Goes to Hell, written by Andy Mangels. The three-issue series was a condensed version of the film, with a few added scenes that were never shot. Topps Comics published another series in 1995, with Nancy A. Collins writing a 3 issue, non-canonical miniseries involving a crossover between Friday the 13th's Jason and The Texas Chainsaw Massacre's Leatherface. The story involves Jason stowing away aboard a train, after being released from Crystal Lake when the area is drained due to heavy toxic waste dumping. Jason meets Leatherface, who adopts him into his family after the two become friends. Eventually, they turn on each other after a series of misunderstandings.

On May 13, 2005, New Line exercised their rights to use the Friday the 13th monicker for the first time, when they, along with Avatar comics, released a special issue of Friday the 13th, written by Brian Pulido and illustrated by Mike Wolfer and Greg Waller. The story takes place after the events of Freddy vs. Jason, where siblings Miles and Laura Upland have inherited Camp Crystal Lake. Knowing that Jason caused the recent destruction, Laura, unknown to her brother, sets out to kill Jason using a paramilitary group, so that she and her brother can sell the property. The issue went on to pre-sell more than 17,500 copies. Avatar released a three-issue mini series titled Friday the 13th: Bloodbath in September 2005. The series was written by Brian Pulido and illustrated by Mike Wolfer and Andrew Dalhouse. The story revolves around a group of teenagers who come to Camp Tomorrow, a camp that sits on Crystal Lake, for work and a "party-filled weekend". The teenagers begin to discover they share common family backgrounds, and soon awaken Jason who proceeds to hunt them.[ Brian Pulido returns for a third time in October 2005 to write another special issue for Avatar, this one titled Jason X. Picking up after the events of the Jason X film, Über-Jason is now on Earth 2 where a biological-engineer, Kristen, attempts to subdue him, in hopes that she can use his regenerative tissue to save her own life and the life of those she loves. In February 2006, Avatar published their final Friday the 13th comic, a two-issue mini series titled Friday the 13th: Jason vs. Jason X. The series was written and illustrated by Mike Wolfer. The story takes place after the events of the film Jason X, where a salvage team discovers the spaceship Grendel and awakens a regenerated Jason Voorhees. The "original" Jason and Über-Jason are drawn to each other resulting in a battle to the death.

In December 2006, Wildstorm began publishing comic books about Jason Voorhees under the Friday the 13th moniker. The first set was a six-issue miniseries. The miniseries involves Jason's return to Crystal Lake, a lone survivor's tale of the murder of her friends by a monster, a new revelation about the evil surrounding Crystal Lake and the truth of what Jason really embodies. The mini series pre-sold approximately 60,318 copies altogether, with each issues pre-selling 15,800, 9,600, 8,964, 8,637, 8,715, and 8,602 respectively. On July 11 and August 15, 2007, Wildstorm published a two part special entitled Friday the 13th: Pamela's Tale. The two issue comic book covers Pamela Voorhees' journey to Camp Crystal Lake and the story of her pregnancy with Jason as she recounts it to hitchhiker Annie, a camp counselor who is killed in the original film. Pamela's Tale pre-sold an estimated 16,051 copies.

"I did about a thirty page treatment for the potential sequel, turned it in, and they all backed it. […] After some time passed and the Ash thing had gone away […] the New Line licensing guys started talking about doing it as a comic book. […] while I was at New Line […] I was trying to encourage it along as best I could, knowing [the comic] was the only way it was going to see the light of day."
— Jeff Katz on how the sequel became a comic

Wildstorm released another two-part special, entitled Friday the 13th: How I Spent My Summer Vacation, consisting of two issues that were released on September 12 and October 10, 2007. The comic book provides new insight into the psychology of Jason Voorhees, as he befriends a boy born with a skull deformity. The first issue of How I Spent My Summer Vacation pre-sold approximately 7,837 copies. Wildstorm has planned a six issue series called Freddy vs. Jason vs. Ash, starring the two killers and Ash from the Evil Dead series. The story focuses on Freddy using the Necronomicon, which is in the Voorhees' basement, to escape from Jason's subconscious and "gain powers unlike anything he’s had before". Freddy attempts to use Jason to retrieve the book, but Ash, who is working at the local S-Mart in Crystal Lake, learns of the book's existence and sets out to destroy it once and for all. The story, by Jeff Katz, was planned as the intended sequel to the Freddy vs. Jason film before it was ever released, but after a few meetings the negotiations ended and the story was shelved. After the success of Freddy vs. Jason the idea of including Ash was brought up again, but New Line ultimately decided they would put the story in comic book form, written by James Kuhoric, with art by Jason Craig. Wildstorm is planning to release a second two-issue mini series on January 9 and February 13, 2008, titled Friday the 13th: Bad Land, written and illustrated by Ron Marz and Mike Huddleston respectively. The series will explore the history of Crystal Lake before Pamela and Jason Voorhees arrived.

Non-fiction

Released in February 2005, Making Friday the 13th: The Legend of Camp Blood is a comprehensive book detailing the creation of the Friday the 13th films. It was written by David Grove, a film journalist who has written for Fangoria, Cinefantastique, and various other British magazines. Grove interviewed the "key personnel involved in making the films" to collect "detailed production histories of each of the eleven films". Eight months after the release of David Grove's book, published by FAB Press, Titan Books, in association with Sparkplug Press, released a detailed history on the Friday the 13th series of their own. Crystal Lake Memories: The Complete History of Friday the 13th by Peter M. Bracke, was released on October 24, 2005. The book chronicles the creation of the series up to the release of Freddy vs. Jason. Author Peter Bracke spent three years researching the series, and collecting over 200 interviews from the cast and crew of each of the films. Bracke's extensive work for the book prompted Sean S. Cunningham to provide a Foreword. The book includes images that had not previously been released to the public, as well as storyboard and concept art, and publicity material. A private party was held on October 22, 2005, for the release of the book, at Universal Studios CityWalk Hollywood.

Merchandise

Friday the 13th has stretched beyond film, television and literature and into other collectables. There have been over one hundred licensed products, which have grossed more than $125 million in revenue. There have been three video games released since the series' inception; all of the games have been released under the title Friday the 13th. The first was in May 1986, when Domark, who had previously released a video game version of A View to a Kill, released a game for the Commodore 64. The plot revolved around the user picking a "sanctuary" on a map and then trying to persuade other teenagers to go hide there; Jason appears as a normal character in the game until he decides to attack. In 1988, LJN, an American game company known for its games based on popular movies in the 80's and early 90's, released Friday the 13th on the Nintendo Entertainment System. The game was not based on any particular film from the series, but a set of themes and elements from all the films that had come before it. The premise involved the gamer, who picks one of six camp counselors as their player, trying to save the campers from Jason, while battling various enemies—wolves, bats, and Pamela Voorhees's head—throughout the game. On October 13, 2006, another Friday the 13th game was released for mobile phones. The game puts the user in the persona of Jason as he battles the undead.

Over the years, the characters of Friday the 13th have been marketed under various toylines. In 1988, Screamin' toys produced a model kit where you could build your own Jason statuette. The kit required the owner to cut and paint various parts in order to assemble the figure. Six years later, Screamin' toys issued a new model kit for Jason Goes to Hell. Both kits are now out of production. McFarlane Toys has released various figures from the series. In 1998, as part of McFarlane's Movie Maniacs 1 collection, a figure of Jason from Jason Goes to Hell was released. Jason, along with Freddy and Leatherface were the three most popular figures sold from Movie Maniacs 1. The following year, a six-inch scale of Jason and Freddy Krueger displayed in a glass case was released. In 2002, as part of Movie Maniacs 5, McFarlane released a model of ÜberJason from Jason X. Another Friday the 13th figure did not arrive from McFarlane until November 2006, when a 3-dimensional movie poster was released. Since McFarlane's last line in 2002, there has been a steady production of action figures, dolls, and statuettes. Some of the more recent merchandise has tied in with the latest film, Freddy vs. Jason.